Extracorporeal fertilization (IVF)
Extracorporeal fertilization (from Latin "extra"- external and “corpus" - body), one of the Assisted Reproduction Techniques, was developed in 1970s. It is being constantly developed, which increases the efficiency of the procedure.
The technique presupposes a procedure of oocyte fertilization in vitro, i.e. the patient’s oocytes are fertilized outside her body.
The medical indications to in vitro fertilization are various infertility forms, for example, tubes occlusion, endocrine dysfunctions, and endometriosis. Moreover, the procedure is efficient for idiopathic infertility treatment and is recommended for patients of mature age. IVF is one of the stages of a surrogacy program. On certain medical indications extracorporeal fertilization is performed with donated oocytes or donated sperm.
IVF can be performed both in non-stimulated and stimulated cycles. In most cases an induction of superovulation is performed with hormonal medicines, which facilitates maturation of many oocytes. When egg cells are mature, they are retrieved from the ovaries and fertilized with sperm in vitro.
The embryos created in the result of the IVF procedure are cultivated in a special apparatus with the ambient conditions very similar to the natural ones. Embryo cultivation is a crucial stage of extracorporeal fertilization which influences the further development of the fertilized egg cells.
On the 3d-5th day of their development the embryos are transferred into the patient’s uterus.